Yu Gao, Khay Ming Tan, Yihan Li, Kyung Taeck Minn, Astrid Marlies Alsema & Chenjie Xu
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are a key ingredient in sunscreen products for efficiently blocking ultraviolet irradiation on the skin. Lately, there have been concerns about their cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage to skin cells. One way to minimize the potential side effects is to wash away the nanoparticles from skin. However, the effectiveness of this strategy has not been evaluated, which is partially due to the lack of a convenient technology for skin analysis. Herein, a portable Raman microscope was shown for the first time to rapidly reveal and quantify titanium dioxide nanoparticle residue on the skin after cleaning. By using porcine skin as an example, cleaning with the detergent was determined as the fastest and most efficient way to remove the nanoparticles from the skin.